Therapeutic Approach to Alzheimer's


Alzheimer’s And Dementia Defined

Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a decline in cognitive function severe enough to interfere with remembering, reasoning, and planning; all requisite activities of daily living, and a disease that eventually leads to death ((Upadhyaya 2010; Stern 2008; Knopman 2012; Mayo Clinic 2011). According to the National Alzheimer’s Association, Alzheimer’s and dementia are described as such:
•Alzheimer's is not a normal part of aging, although the greatest known risk factor is increasing age, and the majority of people with Alzheimer's are beyond age of 65. Alzheimer's, however, is not just a disease of old age. Up to 5% of people with the disease have early onset Alzheimer's (known as younger-onset), which often appears when someone is in their 40’s or 50’s.
•Dementia is not a specific disease. It is an overall term that describes a wide range of symptoms associated with a decline in memory or other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60 to 80% of cases. Vascular dementia, which occurs after a stroke, is the second most common dementia type. But there are many other conditions that can cause symptoms of dementia, including some that are reversible, such as thyroid problems and vitamin deficiencies. Dementia is often incorrectly referred to as "senility" or "senile dementia," which reflects the formerly widespread but incorrect belief that serious mental decline is a normal part of aging.

Alzheimer’s disease is the consequence of several convergent factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and accumulation of toxic protein aggregates in and around neurons (Luan 2012; Teng 2012; Rosales-Corral 2012; Wang 2007; Fonte 2011; Ittner 2011). Emerging, intriguing research implicates chronic infection with several pathogenic organisms in the development and progression of Alzheimer’s disease as well (Miklossy 2011).
The inflammatory process appears to play the major role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. When high levels of amyloid beta accumulate in the brain, it activates the body’s immune response, resulting in inflammation that damages neurons (Salminen 2009). Part of the inflammatory response to amyloid beta appears to be facilitated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (Tobinick 2008a). TNF -αis a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is often found in high levels in serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of Alzheimer’s patients; it represents a potential target for novel Alzheimer’s disease therapies (Culpan 2011; Ardebili 2011; Tobinick 2008a).
How does CBD assist in a treatment of Alzheimer disease? The substantial and well-documented antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties of CBD have prompted researchers to test its effects in models of neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders. In the investigation aimed at exploring CBD effects on b-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity, this phytocannabinoid was found to possess the ability to protect differentiated PC12 neural cells from detrimental action induced by peptide exposure. This is achieved through the combination of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. CBD antioxidant effects account mainly for the survival of cultured neurons, with potency higher than that exhibited by a-tocopherol. CBD prevents neurofibrillar tangle formation.
It also has been demonstrated that CBD decreased phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase, P38 mitogen activated protein kinase, thus preventing the translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-kB into the nucleus and the subsequent transcription of important pro inflammatory genes.
These encouraging results emphasize the relevance of CBD as a very promising pharmacological tool capable of mitigating B-amyloid-evoked neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative responses. Found to prevent both glutamate neurotoxicity and radical oxygen species (ROS) - induced cell death, CBD also suppressed the decrease in cerebral blood flow due to the failure of cerebral microcirculation after

reperfusion, as well as it blunted metalloperoxidase activity after reperfusion for up to 3 days, showing potent long lasting neuroprotectant and anti-inflammatory effects.
Explanation of Terms – in order of usage throughout this document
mitochondrial RNAs: a unique set of tRNAs, mRNAs, rRNAs, transcribed from mitochondrial DNA by a mitochondrial-specific RNA polymerase, that account for about 4% of the total cell RNA that are transcribed
beta-amyloid: A4,β —amyloid Neurology A 4 kD polypeptide encoded on chromosome 21 arising from altered processing of amyloid precursor protein, an integral membrane glycoprotein secreted as a truncated carboxyl-terminal molecule; BA forms plaques in the brains of Pts with Alzheimer's disease–AD, Down syndrome, infectious encephalopathy, cerebral amyloid angiopathy; BA is found in skin, intestine, adrenal gland.
A-tocopherol: one of several forms of Vitamin E. A light yellow, viscous, odorless, oily liquid that deteriorates on exposure to light; it is obtained from wheat germ oil or by synthesis; an antioxidant retarding rancidity by interfering with autoxidation of fats.

Neurofibrillary tangle:

twisted masses of protein inside nerve cells that develop in the brains of people with AD.
Cannabidiol in vivo bluntsβ -amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1βand iNOS expression


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder (Koo et al., 1999) whose specific hallmarks are neurofibrillary tangles (Terry, 1963) and senile plaques (Braak and Braak, 1997). While neurofibrillary tangles result from the deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins (Lee et al., 1991), senile plaques represent more complex extracellular lesions composed of a core of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates, surrounded by activated astrocytes and dystrophic neuritis (Itagaki et al.,
1989; Cotman et al., 1996). At present, although biochemical events leading to Aβ neurotoxicity still remain unclear, proposed mechanisms include production of oxygen free radicals (Behl et al., 1994), changes in cytosolic calcium homeostasis (Ueda et al., 1997; Mattson, 2002) and activation of Wnt pathway as well as of the transcription nuclear factor NF-κB (Green and Peers, 2002; Caricasole et al., 2003). In addition to cytotoxic mechanisms directly affecting neurons, Aβ-induced glial cell activation, triggering inflammatory responses with subsequent release of neurotoxic cytokines, is present in the AD brain, contributing to the pathogenesis of disease (Craft et al., 2006). The possibility of interfering with this detrimental cycle by pharmacologically inhibiting reactive gliosis has been proposed as a novel rationale to develop drugs able to blunt neuronal damage and consequently slow the course of disease.
Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of the glandular hairs of Cannabis sativa, exhibits a plethora of actions including anti-convulsive, sedative, hypnotic, anti-psychotic, anti-nausea, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic properties (Mechoulam et al., 2002; Costa et al., 2007). CBD has been proved to exert in vitro a combination of neuroprotective effects in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, including anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects (Iuvone et al., 2004), tau protein hyperphosphorylation inhibition through the Wnt pathway (Esposito et al., 2006a), and marked decrease of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression and nitrite production in Aβ-challenged differentiated rat neuronal cells (Esposito et al., 2006b).

In spite of the large amount of data describing the significant neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of CBD in vitro, to date no evidence has been provided showing similar effects in vivo. To achieve this, the present study investigated the potential anti-inflammatory effect of CBD in a mouse model of AD-related neuroinflammation induced by the intrahippocampal injection of the human Aβ (1– 42) fragment.

Discussion and conclusions

The urgent need for novel strategies for AD is apparent with the realization that the currently approved therapies are only palliative without significant and substantial disease modifying effects (Turner, 2006). In contrast, the present study suggests that CBD, here investigated with a primary focus on glial pathways, exhibits a potential to delay effectively the onset and progression of Aβ neurotoxicity. Actually, the current results provide evidence that CBD causes a clear-cut reduction of the transcription and expression of glial pro-inflammatory molecules in the hippocampus of an in vivo model of Aβ-induced neuroinflammation. They suggest CBD may be regarded as a promising tool able to affect the course of Aβ-related neuropathology, by reducing Aβ-generated reactive gliosis and subsequent neuroinflammatory responses, in addition to the previously demonstrated protective effects directly affecting neurons (Iuvone et al., 2004;Esposito et al., 2006a, 2006b). Indeed, the increasing body of immunohistological and molecular findings, showing that inflammatory processes are pre-eminent and constant aspects of the neuropathology generated by the Aβ toxicity, supports the notion that the previously under- appreciated glial activation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of brain lesions subsequent to
Aβ deposition (Craft et al., 2006). Although acute activation of glial cells may have important beneficial effects in the recovery of the CNS from a variety of insults, it is believed that a persistent activation amplifies inflammatory responses leading to a worsening of the consequences of injury (Ralay Ranaivo et al., 2006). In the scenario of reactive gliosis, the main features are astrocytic hypertrophy and proliferation, along with a marked overexpression of the intermediate filament proteins, such as GFAP, the best known hallmark of activated astrocytes (O'Callaghan and Sriram, 2005).
The present investigation focuses the ability of this phytocannabinoid, CBD, to negatively modulate GFAP transcription and expression as well as to significantly reduce IL-1β and iNOS upregulation, which importantly contribute to disease progression, through the propagation of inflammation and oxidative stress. Among the many active substances produced by Aβ stimulated microglia, IL-1β has proved to be substantially implicated in the cytokine cycle of cellular and molecular events responsible for the neurodegenerative consequences (Griffin et al., 1998). These include synthesis and processing of amyloid precursor protein (Buxbaum et al., 1992; Mrak and Griffin, 2000), as well as astrocyte activation with a subsequent iNOS overexpression and excessive production of NO (Das and Potter,
1995; Sheng et al., 1996). Increasing amounts of NO, a short-lived and diffusible free radical involved in all reported neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions (Murphy, 2000), accelerate neuronal protein nitration and cause a marked increase in tau protein hyperphosphorylation (Saez et al., 2004), encouraging the detrimental progression of Aβ-related pathology (Nathan et al., 2005).
Therefore, in this context where inflammatory pathways are believed to play relevant roles as driving forces of the Aβ-induced injury, they are identified as potential modulators of the neuronal damage and are reported as neuronal targets for effective therapeutic interventions. The present investigation provides the first evidence that substantial components of the neuroinflammatory response, set in motion by Aβdeposition and allowing for progression of neuropathology, are suppressed in vivo by CBD. The current data confirm and further reinforces the view that CBD can exhibit protective effects in models of neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration.
The seminal work describing CBD neuroprotective properties demonstrated its ability to protect cortical neurons in culture against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Such effects were found to be not antagonized by the established CB1 antagonist SR141716A, suggesting that they were independent of
CB1 cannabinoid receptor involvement. Later CBD was shown to prevent Aβ-induced toxicity in PC12
pheocromocytoma cells, increasing survival while decreasing reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, caspas-3 levels, DNA fragmentation and intracellular calcium (Iuvone et al., 2004). In addition to this combination of anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, subsequent studies, carried out under the same experimental conditions, demonstrated that CBD was able to operate as a Wnt/β-catenin pathway rescuer, inhibiting Aβ-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation while attenuating iNOS protein expression and NO production (Esposito et al., 2006b). Such a wide range of

effects on pathophysiological processes implicated in neuroinflammatory/neurodegenerative diseases appears truly intriguing and encourages the clinical applicability of CBD for therapeutic use.
Its antioxidant and neuroprotective actions are presumably related in part to a potential as a scavenger of free radicals due to its structural characteristics (Hampson et al., 2000), although there is room for alternative mechanisms. Ruling out the possibility that transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channels may be involved in the suppression of reactive gliosis exerted by CBD (personal data), a potential involvement of the CB2 receptor might be taken into account. The recently provided in
vitro evidence that CBD can display CB2 receptor inverse agonist properties (Thomas et al., 2007) might
offer an explanation of the anti-neuroinflammatory effects we have shown here. In Aβ neurotoxicity, several results have related CB2 receptors to events involved in the progression of brain damage by
affecting reactive gliosis at neuroinflammatory lesion sites (Walter and Stella, 2004). Further, we have recently reported that, in a rodent model of Aβ-induced reactive gliosis, CB2 receptors were
overexpressed (van der Stelt et al., 2006), paralleling the changes in cannabinoid receptor expression occurring in AD brain, where, in astrocyte-associated plaques, CB2 receptors were also found to be up-
regulated (Ramirez et al., 2005). Interestingly, some of our recent unpublished results suggest that pharmacological interactions at glial CB1 and CB2receptors result in a marked and opposite regulation of
reactive astroglial response, with CB2 receptor blockade suppressing astroglial activation. These findings
would imply a function for CB2 receptors in the regulation of CBD actions and would encourage further
study of how pharmacological interactions at this receptor could influence the effects of CBD. Although more research will be needed to elucidate fully the molecular mechanisms implicated in the CBD actions described in this paper, the current data showed that the early administration of CBD markedly attenuated in vivo the reactive gliosis induced by Aβ injury. The relevance of these results stems from the fact that a proper control of glial cell function, which is compromised by the persistence of inflammatory events, is critical to provide an environment capable of ensuring neuronal survival and function. For this reason, on the basis of the present results, CBD, a drug well tolerated in humans, may be regarded as an attractive medical alternative for the treatment of AD, because of its lack of psychoactive and cognitive effects.
Cannabidiolβ Reduces A -Induced Neuroinflammation and Promotes HippocampalγInvolvementNeurogenesis through PPAR


Despite a significant increase in the understanding of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) over the past two decades, therapeutic options for treating this condition are still very disappointing.
Depending on the heterogeneity of pathways that could initiate and drive sporadic AD, effective treatment for this illness rests on the ability to develop a multi-targeted approach, as used in current practice for other multi-factorial disorders [1]. According to this assumption, both natural and synthetic cannabinoids have been proposed as novel potential pharmacological tools able to blunt underlying disease processes, thus ameliorating symptoms and slowing down illness progression [2], [3].
Unfortunately, Cannabis derivatives are therapeutically limited by their unwanted psychotropic effects. However, one interesting exception to this is represented by cannabidiol (CBD), the major constituent of the plant, which lacks any undesired psychomimetic action. Converging evidence provided over the last years, also by our group,βamyloiddemonstrated that CBD may account for a significant reduction of
(Aβ) induced neuronal cell death, due to its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen spe cies and reduce lipid peroxidation [4]. That CBD exerts anti-inflammatory properties, impairing the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukinβ(IL1 -1β) expression which consequently decreases their release was also proved in an in vivo model of AD [5]. Moreover,τhyperphosphorylationCBD was reported toinblunt
cultured neurons byβ(GSK3reduciβ), acting asphosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3
Wnt/β -catenin pathway rescuer, although alternative mechanisms may be implicated in inducing this

effect [6]. Indeed,βalsosincepromotesGSK3amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, and so
increasingβgenerationA [7], the CBD-mediatedβis inhibitilikelyonbeofeffectiveGSK3 in reducing
the amyloid burden. Moreover, CBD was also described to protect neurons against glutamate toxicity [8], an effect occurring independently of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) signalling[9]. Despite such impressive properties and promising actions, the precise site at which CBD could exert its neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effects is still not fully elucidated. The recently discovered ability of different cannabinoids, including CBD, to display an extra-cannabinoid receptor binding activity has been highlighted by the observation that these compounds may go nuclear to exert their activity through the interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) [10]. The PPARs belong to the family of nuclear hormone receptors and their activity is generally regulated by steroids and lipid metabolites. At present three different PPARα, PPARβ, alsoisoformsδ, andcalledγ) have(PPAR
been identified [11]; they have been reported to control the expression of genes related to lipid and glucose homeostasis and inflammatory responses [12]. A growing body of evidence suggests PPARs as drug targets for treating several dysmetabolic conditions and inflammatory degenerative diseases, as
wellγis.PPARexpressed in the CNS at low levels under physiological condition
[13]. However, in some
pathological situations,γexpression,includingbutAD,notPPARother isoforms, was shown to be

elevated[14]. These findingsγcould playsuggesteda role inthat PPAR
regulating pathophysiological
features of AD andγactivityestablisin hedtreatmentthe basisofforthemoduldiseationse. of PPAR

Therefore the present study was aimed at exploring whether CBD neuroprotective effects depend upon its activity on PPARs receptors,γisoformparticularly.To thisonpurpose,PPAR the involvement of
PPARs receptors in mediating anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of CBD both in vitro in primary cultured astrocytes and in vivo, in a rat model of AD-related neuroinflammation induced by the
intrahippocampalβ(1 injection of fibrillar A –42) peptide was evaluated.


Chronic neuroinflammation implicates protracted activation of both microglial and astroglial cells, with the consequent sustained release of pro-inflammatory molecules [15], [16], that act in an autocrine way to self-perpetuate reactive gliosis and in a paracrine way to kill neighboring neurons, thus expanding the neuropathological damage. Once started, neuroinflammation promotes neuronal death, powering a vicious cycle responsible for the progression of the pathology [17]. The possibility of interfering with this detrimental cycle by molecules which can reduce reactive gliosis has been proposed as a novel rationale to develop drugs able to blunt neuronal damage and consequently slow the course of AD.
Results from the present study prove the selectiveγin the antiinvolvement of PPAR -inflammatory and
neuroprotective effects of CBD here observed either in vitro and in vivo. In addition, CBD significantly promotedβinjuredneurogenesisrat hippocampi,in A much expanding its already wide spectrum of
beneficial actions exertedγ. in AD models, a non negligible effect, due to its capability to activate PPAR
CBD was already reported to exert a marked anti-inflammatory effect through the A2A and 5HT1A receptors [18], [19], as well as to improve brain function [20]. In addition, it has been already demonstrated that CBD markedly downregulate reactive gliosis by reducing pro-inflammatory molecules
and cytokineβneurotoxicityrelease that. stronglyThisactivityoccurswasinlinkedA
to its ability to act as
a potentκB activatiinhibitβchalleornofinducedNFge by A
[21]. The present findings, confirming the
formerly obtained results and extending our knowledge about CBD pharmacology, indicate that a
selectiveγactivationPPARoccurs upstream to CBD
-mediated NFκB inhibition. Such activation appears
to be responsible for a largeγsite plethora of CBD effects. Indeed, the interaction of CBD at the PPAR
results in a profound inhibition of reactive gliosis as showed by the reduction of both GFAP and S100B protein expression together with a marked decline of pro-inflammatory molecules and cytokine release observedβchalleingedA astrocytes.
The in vitro findings were replicated in in vivo experiments, since once again CBD treatment resulted in a profound inhibition of astrocyticβ activation surrounding CA1 area A -injected and induced a rescue of CA1 neuronal viability in comparison to control.
Along this line, results from hippocampal homogenates fully matched with in vitro data previously obtained from primary cultured astrocytes. γAlso in this case, CBD through the activation of PPAR provoked aα, andmarkedIL reduction of NO, TNF -1βrelease in association with a parallel decline of GFAP, S100B, and iNOS protein expression. The observation that in the hippocampus the selective

activationγcausedof PPARa decrease in p50 and p65 protein expression, further reinforces the

importanceγactivation/NFofκtheBinhibitiosequenceasofrespoeventssiblePPARfor the CBD anti
inflammatoryγmediatedeffectinhi.The PPAR
bition of S100B induced by CBD represents a crucial step
in interrupting self-perpetuation of the reactive gliosis cycle. Indeed, the over-release of this astroglial- derived neurotrophin actively exacerbates the pro-inflammatoryβ cytokine loop fuelled by A stimulation, massively acceleratesβandamyloidogenicityinduces tau proteinby promoting cleavage of APP to A
hyperphosphorylation, by disrupting the Wnt pathway [22]–[24].
Notably, both in vivo and in vitro, a selectiveγat theinvolvementbase of theofneuroprotectivePPAR
and anti-gliotic effect of CBD appears peremptory, since a complete loss of any beneficial pharmacological activity of this phytocannabinoid occurs when it was co-administeredγ with the PPAR antagonist GW9662.
Neuroprotectiveγagonistseffectsin neuropathologicalxerted by PPARconditions, includi ngβinducedA neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration have been largely described in the past years [25]. Besides microglial cells, emerging data indicate astrocytes and neurons as fundamental cell type targets for the
beneficialγligandsrole of PPAR [26]. Astrocytes represent the most abundant glial cells type in the CNS.
Once these cells undergo reactive activation, they produce cytokines and other molecules involved in inflammatory response, which are thought to significantly contribute to expand brain damage.
Interestingly astrocytesγin the CNSexpress the highest level of PPAR [27], [28], and accumulating
evidence overγagonistthe lastmaydecadefinelyindicateregulatehattheirPPARdetrimental
functions during a protracted activation exerting a profound anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects [29].
Such well-defined and highlyγactivationeffectivehasbeneficialrecently activity due to PPAR demonstratedκB promotersto functioinallyduciingactivatemassivNF e down regulation of the activation of thisγagoniststranscriptionlike thiazolidinedionesfactor. TraditionalwerePPARreported to
inhibit the overproduction of NO, IL-6, and TNF-αas well as the increased expression of the inducible enzymes iNOS and COX2 induced in LPS-stimulated astrocytic and microglial cultures [30]–[32]. Taken together all these findings fully match those concerning the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities exhibited by CBD in this study.
AD neuroinflammation is a highly important feature that has been considered responsible for the progressive worsening of the disease. Given the tremendous complexity of AD, however, it appears to be oversimplified reasoning to consider only reactive astrogliosis and neuronal degeneration as the unique factors at the basis of the functional decline provoked by the course of the illness.
Neuropathological investigation has provided evidence that in AD brains progressive neuronal loss is not accompanied by a new neuronal replacement while alterations in neurogenesis have been reported to occur[33]. Both aspects are considered to be important in contributing to the long-term development of disease. Therefore the disease symptoms could partly be due to the impaired replacement of new hippocampal neurons from endogenous neuronal stem cells [34], [35], which is believed to promote learning and memory. Although there were some controversies over whether neurogenesis is increased or reduced in the pathogenesis of AD, later studies have confirmed deficient maturation of new neurons in AD patients [36]. As a result, an approach to enhance neurogenesis and/or maturation should be considered potential therapies for AD.
Moreover,γh activation of PPAR as been reported to promote neurogenesis and agonists at these receptors regulate neuronal stem cell proliferation and differentiation as well [37]. In addition PPARγ activation promotes neurite outgrowth in mature neurons, significantly contributing to a proper neuronal connectivity in neuronal networks [38]. According to these observations, results from the current investigation demonstrate that CBD-mediatedγis activationssociatedofwithPPARa significant
neurogenic activity in the granule cell layer of the hippocampal DG. Results indicate that CBD markedly counteracts the massive reductionβexposureoftowardsneu ogenesiscontrolin the DG caused by A
animals and this effectγinvolvementis consequential,. as expected, to a selective PPAR
It has been recently asserted that CBD could promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis by activating CB1 receptors [39]. Such an assumption was supported by the observation that the CBD neurogenic effect was lost in CB1 knock-out mice, suggesting that the pro-neurogenic action of this phytocannabinoid was clearly dependent on the interaction at the CB1 receptor, which shows a wide expression over the entire
DG, including the neuronal9 precursor cells. However, the observation that -tetrahydrocannabinol, a preferential agonist at CB1 receptor site, failed in the same investigation to affect hippocampal neurogenesis, tempers the notion that CB1 receptor activation and CBD neurogenetic properties are linked in a straightforward way. Since CBD exhibits negligible affinity to CB1 receptors and the majority of actions appears to be cannabinoid receptor independent, it is possible to assume that the CBD effect on neurogenesis could only involve CB1 receptor sites indirectly.
In conclusion, results of the present research demonstrate that CBD may exert protective functions throughγdependenta PPARactivation, which leads to a reduc tion in reactive gliosis and consequently in neurodegeneration. Moreover, in the current experimental conditions this phytocannabinoid appears to stimulate neurogenesis since it increases DCX immunopositive cell proliferation rate in rat DG.
Innovative therapeutic approaches which could significantly improve AD course require new molecules that will be able to have an impact on different pathological pathways, which converge at the progressive neurological decline. CBD has shown a capability to profoundly reduce reactive astrogliosis and to guarantee bothβinduceddirect aneuroinflammation/neurodegerationindirect neuronal protection A .
So far, the lack of understanding of the precise molecular mechanism involved in CBD pharmacological actions, has had limited interest and has puzzled investigators. Currently, findings of the present study throw some lightγactivatoron the issue,. and frame CBD as a new PPAR

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